Maailman kauneimmat naisten nimet imatraI attained my MSc degree in 1990. And how does this compare to land surveying? How do you see the application of single-beam echo sounding versus multi-beam? There is a hydrographic community in China named the Hydrographic Surveying and Charting Commission; it is a branch of the Chinese Society of Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography and includes fifteen commissions. What is the Dalian Naval Academy? A yearly conference is to be held to discuss academic and applied hot topics in hydrographic surveying and charting. In 2003 I published a monograph, Space Structure and Data processing in Marine Sounding; in 1993 Tidology and in 1996 Marine Gravimetric and Magnetic Surveying, both collaborative efforts. Is there in China a hydrographic community of scientists, surveyors and related practitioners? What are the prospects for the future? When I was 16-year old, in 1978, I entered the Department of Hydrography and Cartography (H C) of Dalian Naval Academy, taking as my main subject marine gravimetric survey. The results of our research showed that the effect of angular beam-width debases the functions of single-beam echo sounders. Its training programme has been given the recognition of FIG/IHO/ICA at Category A (in 2002) and Category B (in 2003) and its syllabi are now based on Standards of Competence for Hydrographic Surveyors (9th Edition) and Standards of Competence for Nautical Cartographers (1st Edition). Please give our readers a brief summary of your career and how you got involved in hydrography.
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Do you have a personal message for the hydrographic harie pussys sihteeriopisto vaasa world in general and/or hydrographic surveyors in particular? That article described the present hydrographic situation in China. For instance, the effect of kurvikas saattajat alasti sisään espoo angular beam-width on depth observations, which makes depth observation smaller than its real value and distorts seabed charts, has been known for nearly 80 years. From the point of view of the geo-metry of marine bathymetry, single-beam echo sounding belongs to narrow-swath sounding technique, while multi-beam echo sounding is a new wide-swath sounding technique with high efficiency, especially in deep-sea areas. China has more than 900 lakes, some 5,800 rivers, of which five are very large, an 18,000km-long coastline and more than 6,000 islands in about.50 million square kilometres of sea area. Up until now I have published more than 180 papers on hydrography. Is this system comparable with, for example, erotiikka kuopio isoimmat tissit the Australian lads, or does it differ? The design principle of alsms is consistent with those made by other countries, such as the Australian lads, of which maximum detecting depth is 50m or more. I expect there to be breakthroughs in theory and method; improvements in theories and methods have fallen behind the development of hydrographic instruments. In my view, hydrography is a science of underwater topography with related parameters and observations on water body. Some tests show its maximum detecting depth is 36m, with 1m accuracy. Do you expect breakthroughs in hydrography in terms of emerging technology, new methods, higher required accuracy or anything else? I hope IHO can explain the contents of S-44 (IHO Standards for Hydrographic Surveys) in detail, especially why Table 1 and 2 of S-44 are given and how to meet their rigorous demands. At present, both single-beam and multi-beam techniques are used in most developing countries and some developed countries.
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- China China has more than 900 lakes, some 5,800 rivers, of which five are very large, an 18,000km-long coastline and more than 6,000 islands in about.50 million square kilometres of sea area.
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What are the hydrographic or related sciences that can be studied, the courses and research: both combined military and/or civilian? We asked the head of the Department of Hydrography and Cartography at the Dalian Naval Academy. In 1982 I got my BSc degree and began work as an assistant in the department. Is language a barrier for hydrographic students? Is this merely academic and does practise lag behind? All of this has to be surveyed and charted under the jurisdiction of the Chinese government. And what about surveying for dredging, exploration and harbour construction projects? Then in 1999 I became a full professor at the Department of H C of the Dalian Naval Academy; in 2000 I was appointed vice-director of the Hydrographic Surveying Corps of the Southsea fleet of the Chinese Navy. As already mentioned, our training programme has obtained the recognition of FIG/IHO/ICA at Category A and. In addition, the accuracy of sounding data in a grid pattern can be improved by using the theory of adjustment (A Method for Detecting and Adjusting Systematic Errors of Single-beam Sounding Data Acquired in a Grid Pattern. Hydro International interviews Professor and Commodore Liu Yanchun,.R. What are the roles and responsibilities of the Maritime Safety Administration, the Chinese Navy, port authorities and surveying companies? At present, an emergent problem is that factors on earth, discovered and not yet discovered, solved and not yet solved, limit improvement of the accuracy of hydrographic data. International Hydrographic Review, Vol.5,.1, 2004). Chen and I gave the correction method for this effect (Corrections for the Seabed Distortion Caused by the Angular Beam-width of Echo Sounders, The Hydrographic Journal.84, 1996).
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I continued my teaching work as a lecturer in 1991 and was promoted to become an associate professor in 1993. In addition, I hope hydrographic surveyors will study and improve their knowledge of error theory and data processing, which will help them accurately to evaluate their surveying data. In 1998, I finished my dissertation Space Structure and Data processing in Marine Sounding and got my PhD degree from Wuhan Technical University of Surveying and Mapping. Is there a shortage of trained surveyors in China? From now on, we will train more hydrographic surveyors for China and abroad. Here I would like to emphasise that practise does not lag behind academic work in China, for many academic findings have been applied in practice. There are thousands of trained hydrographic surveyors at present in China and more than 50 new hydrographic surveyors trained every year. The language is still to some extent a barrier for hydrographic students in our department, in spite of English being a compulsory course in our programme. Do you see single-beam disappearing in the future?